Echocardiography. The primary applications of cardiac emergency ultrasound examinations are in the diagnosis or exclusion of pericardial effusions, cardiac tamponade, and the evaluation of gross cardiac function, especially in patients undergoing active resuscitation. You will also learn the advanced ultrasound techniques of gross estimation of intravascular volume status and identification of right ventricular dysfunction in the setting of unexplained chest pain, dyspnea, or hemodynamic instability. The following four standard views will be the focus of the lecture: subxiphoid, short parasternal, long parasternal, and apical.